## Probability and Statistics K-6

### Craig Loewen, Faculty of Education, Lethbridge University

In January 1998 I was asked to give a workshop at a local school on the Probability and Statistics strand in the Western Canadian Protocol at the kindergarten to grade 6 levels. To do so I created the following pages, one for each objective for each grade level (there are seventeen). On each page is the objective, followed by a problem, a manipulative-type activity, and a game. Some activities require special cards, spinners etc. which were appended.
 Objective 1 Predict the chance of an event happening, using the terms never, sometimes, always. Objective 2 Describe the likelihood of an outcome, using such terms as likely, unlikely, expect, probability. Objective 3 Make a prediction based on a simple probability experiment. Objective 4 Describe the likelihood of an outcome, using such terms as likely, less likely, chance. Objective 5 Conduct a probability experiment, choose an appropriate recording method, and draw conclusions from the results. Objective 6 Identify an outcome as possible, impossible, certain, uncertain.F Objective 7 Compare outcomes as equally likely, more likely, less likely. Objective 8 Design and conduct experiments to answer one's own questions. Objective 9 List all possible outcomes of an experiment involving a single event. Objective 10 Describe events, using the vocabulary of probability: best, worst; probable, improbable; always, more likely, less likely, equally likely, never. Objective 11 Conduct probability experiments, and explain the results, using the vocabulary of probability. Objective 12 Conduct probability experiments to demonstrate that results are not influenced by such factors as the age, experiences or skills of the participant. Objective 13 Distinguish between experimental and theoretical probability for single events. Objective 14 Make the connection between the number of faces for various dice, and the probability of a single event. Objective 15 Calculate theoretical probability, using numbers between 0 and 1. Objective 16 Demonstrate that different outcomes may occur when repeating the same experiment. Objective 17 Compare experimental results with theoretical results.
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